New instrumented method to measure the true loading profile along grouted rockbolts
Transactions of the Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration
, 2015, Vol. 338, No. 1, pp. 433-440
Kostecki, T.; Spearing, A.J.S. (Sam); Forbes, B.; Hyett, A.
Improving upon the past understanding of the interaction between installed rock bolts, the immediate roof and sidewalls is vital for the implementation of sound support system design, as this has a direct impact on rock-related safety. This is the primary goal in rock-bolt-related research. The earliest research in this field concentrated on limited laboratory and in situ measurements accompanied by theoretical analyses, based on the Kirsch equations. This represented the initial insight into understanding relative ground movements and their impact on primary support. However, these studies were far from complete. More recently, major technological advances in computing power within the mining industry has changed the scope from theoretical analysis to computer simulation. Even with these advancements our understanding of rock bolts in situ and in the laboratory has not progressed, particularly concerning bending and shear. To measure the behavior of rock bolts, the widely accepted practice is to populate the bolts with an array of strain gauges. Historically, resistive foil strain gauges or long displacement sensors have been used. Additionally, all instrumented rock bolts have used only two diametrically opposed slots. Rock bolts instrumented with these methods have significant shortcomings, one of which is the inability to capture shear and bending. The shearing and bending of rock bolts are particularly common in tabular soft rock mining, such as coal mining. This paper discusses the use of three slotted rock bolts, cut diametrically 120º apart, and two new optical fiber technologies populated along the entire rock-bolt length.